The Effects of Integrated BIM in Processes and Business Models
Kiviniemi, A 2011 'The Effects of Integrated BIM in Processes and Business Models', in: Kocaturk, T & Medjdoub, B (eds.), Distributed Intelligence in Design, Wiley Blackwell, Chichester, UK, pp.125-135.
The idea of Building Information Modelling (BIM) was created already in mid 1970s, first under the name of Building Product Modelling (Eastman 1975) and started to become a wider industry issue since 1995 when the International Alliance for Interoperability (IAI) started to develop a standard called Industry Foundation Classes (IFC); a schema and format for the data exchange between different software applications used in Architectural, Engineering, Construction, Owning and Operations (AECOO) activities (IAI 1995). In the first 10 years the main focus in the development of BIM was strongly in the technology. This was necessary since a standardised data exchange is a mandatory precondition for an efficient BIM-based workflow between different participants – Integrated BIM (iBIM) – and the development and implementation of such a standard proved to be significantly more complex than believed in the beginning of IAI (Kiviniemi 2006; Kiviniemi et al 2008). However, despite the still existing technical problems and limitations in the data exchange (Kiviniemi 2008), the main obstacle for the deployment of iBIM in the last few years has not been the technology, but the old work processes, old business models and conservative attitudes in the industry. The traditional paper-based processes do not utilise the full potential of iBIM and AECOO industry’s business models do not support necessary development of the processes. Finally in the last few years the development focus has started to shift towards necessary changes in processes and business models. This Chapter is based on several research and pilot projects and the development and use of iBIM in Finland since 2001 and highlights some of the current problems.
Distributed Intelligence in Design