Journal Article (Refereed)
Post-encystment/established immunity in cystic Echinococcosis: Is it that simple?
Rogan, M & Bodell, A & Craig, P 2014, 'Post-encystment/established immunity in cystic Echinococcosis: Is it that simple? ', Parasite Immunology, In press.
In 1982, Rickard & Williams put forward the concept that immunity to larval taeniid cestodes, in the intermediate host, could be divided into two different phases, the establishment phase, largely operating against oncospheres and early stages of development, and the established phase, operating against established metacestodes in the tissues. As a result of many years of subsequent research we can consider that, for metacestodes of Echinococcus spp, a single established phase is probably too simple a concept. These parasites can live for many years and show considerable developmental changes over time, the most significant being growth and fertility. Recent clinical cyst classifications such as the WHO/IWGE system for E. granulosus have highlighted that all hydatid cysts are morphologically not the same. Additionally each type of cyst may be characterised by differing immunological parameters. To have a better understanding of what features are important in parasite survival, immunological activity should be considered with regards to time post-infection and stages of parasite development. We therefore propose that a single “Established” phase for E. granulosus could be subdivided into four additional phases: maturing; stable; unstable; and degenerative.