SEEK: Salford Environment for Expertise and Knowledge

Journal Article (Refereed)
November 2016

Superinfection exclusion and the long-term survival of honey bees in Varroa infested colonies

Mordecai, G & Brettell, L & Martin, S & Jones, I & Dixon, D & Schroeder, D 2016, 'Superinfection exclusion and the long-term survival of honey bees in Varroa infested colonies', ISMJ.


Over the past 50 years, many millions of European honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies have died as the ecto-parasitic mite, Varroa destructor, has spread around the world. Subsequent studies have indicated that the mite¿s association with a group of RNA viral pathogens (DWV) correlates with colony death. Here we propose a phenomenon known as superinfection exclusion that provides an explanation of how certain A. mellifera populations have survived, despite Varroa infestation and high DWV loads. Next-generation sequencing has shown that a non-lethal DWV variant ¿type B¿ has become established in these colonies and that the lethal ¿type A¿ DWV variant fails to persist in the bee population. We propose this novel stable host pathogen relationship prevents the accumulation of lethal variants, suggesting that this interaction could be exploited for the development of an effective treatment that minimizes colony losses in the future.


SEEK Members

External Authors

D.C. Schroeder

D. Dixon

I.M. Jones

L.E. Brettell

G.J. Mordecai

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