Journal Article (Refereed)
Deformed wing virus is a recent global epidemic in honeybees driven by Varroa mites
Wifert, L & Butlin, R & long, G & Martin, S & Boots, M & al, E 2016, 'Deformed wing virus is a recent global epidemic in honeybees driven by Varroa mites', Science.
Deformed wing virus (DWV) and its vector, the mite Varroa destructor, are a major threat to the world’s honeybees. Although the impact of Varroa on colony-level DWV epidemiology is evident, we have little understanding of wider DWV epidemiology and the role that Varroa has played in its global spread. A phylogeographic analysis shows that DWV is globally
distributed in honeybees, having recently spread from a common source, the European honeybee Apis mellifera. DWV exhibits epidemic growth and transmission that is predominantly mediated by European and North American honeybee populations and driven by trade and movement of honeybee colonies. DWV is now an important reemerging
pathogen of honeybees, which are undergoing a worldwide manmade epidemic fueled by the direct transmission route that the Varroa mite provides.