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Journal Article (Refereed)
December 2007

Intrinsic foot kinematics measured in vivo during the stance phase of slow running

Arndt, A & Wolf, P & Liu, A & Nester, C & Stacoff, A & Jones, R & Lundgren, P & Lundberg, A 2007, 'Intrinsic foot kinematics measured in vivo during the stance phase of slow running', Journal of Biomechanics.



An accurate kinematic description of the intrinsic articulations of the foot during running has not previously been presented, primarily due to methodological limitations. An invasive method based upon reflective marker arrays mounted on intracortical pins drilled into the bones was used in this study. Four male volunteers participated as subjects. Pins (1.6 mm diameter) were inserted under local anaesthetic in the tibia, fibula, calcaneus, talus, navicular, cuboid, medial cuneiform and metatarsals I and V. A 10 camera motion analysis system was used for kinematic data capture and the ground reaction force was simultaneously measured. Segment motion relative to adjacent proximal segments was determined using helical axes projected into the coordinate system of the proximal segment. Coefficients of multiple correlation calculated to determine the strength of association between running style with and without the pins inserted indicated that the subjects had little restriction due to the inserted pins. Individual and mean results were presented for rotations defined in the planes of the proximal segment's coordinate system and showed frontal plane rotation of the talocrural joint (12.2±7.1°), which exceeded that of the subtalar joint (8.9±3.2°). Considerable mobility of the talonavicular joint was found (6.5±2.9°, 13.5±4.1° and 8.7±1.4° in the sagittal, frontal and transverse planes, respectively). Furthermore, little, but non-negligible motion between the fibula and tibia was found (3.3±2.4° in the sagittal plane). The presented data are of interest as input for future biomechanical modelling and clinical decision making in particular, concerning joint fusion.


  • Foot kinematics;
  • Running;
  • Individual articulations


SEEK Members

External Authors

Alex Stacoff

Peter Wolf

Anthony Arndt

Arne Lundberg

Paul Lundgren

Publication Details

Journal Name
Journal of Biomechanics